KNOW YOUR

Eye Anatomy

by International Prosthetic Eye Center

The eye is an extraordinary and complex organ that allows us to 'see'. The brain actually does the 'seeing' - the eye is the 'central processor' that takes the information in the form of light waves and transmits the information into the brain.

THE ORBIT

The orbit helps to protect the human eye from injury and is comprised of seven bones:

  • Ethmoid

  • Frontal

  • Lachrymal

  • Maxillary

  • Palatine

  • Sphenoid

  • Zygomatic

These bones converge and form a pyramid-shaped socket that points towards the back of the head. It is within this socket that the eyeball rests. Surrounding the eye within the socket is a layer of fat, cushioning the eyeball and allowing it to move smoothly within the orbit.

THE EYE

(sometimes referred to as the eyeball)

The eyeball contains three layers:

  • The outer layer, formed by the cornea and sclera

  • The middle layer, holding the primary blood supply for the eye and containing the iris and pupil

  • The inner layer, comprised of the retina

The eyeball also contains three chambers of fluid:

  • Anterior chamber, between the cornea and iris

  • Posterior chamber, between the iris and the lens

  • Vitreous chamber, between the lens and the retina

The anterior and posterior chambers are filled with aqueous humour, which is a watery fluid that provides nourishment to the interior eye structures and helps to keep the eyeball inflated. The vitreous chamber is filled with a thicker fluid called vitreous humour, a transparent gel which is 99% water, which helps the eyes to stay inflated.

THE OPTIC NERVE

As well as numerous blood vessels, the eye also contains the optic nerve. This runs from the back of the eyeball, through an opening in the orbit known as the optic foramen.

From here, the optic nerve connects to the brain and acts as a conduit, transmitting visual information into the brain. Other nerves within the eye carry non-visual information and send messages about pain or help to control motor activity within the eye.

THE CORNEA

The cornea is the clear portion of the eye that covers the iris and the pupil and takes up about one-sixth of the eye. The rest of the eye (the scleral segment) is opaque. Several nerves and blood vessels run through the sclera, including the optic nerve. The cornea and scleral segment come together in an area called the limbus. This contains a great deal of blood vessels.

THE IRIS AND PUPIL

The iris and pupil are the most noticeable parts of the eye. The iris is the coloured ring of tissue that lies beneath the cornea and can be a range of colours, determined by genetics. The pupil is located in the centre of the iris and appears as a black hole that acts rather like a camera aperture, allowing light to enter the eye. This works in the same way as a camera, adjusting to control the flow of light into the eye. In bright conditions, the pupil closes down, reducing the amount of light entering the eye and protecting the delicate nerves from being damaged. In the dark, the reverse happens to allow what light there is to enter the eye.

LENS AND RETINA

Directly behind the iris is the lens. This focuses rays of light onto the retina, which is a light-sensitive nerve tissue that contains photosensitive cells called rods and cones. These convert light into electrical signals that are carried to the brain by the optic nerve.

EYELIDS

Although often ignored, the eyelids play a crucial role in protecting the eyes. They help to protect the surface of the eye from scratches, dust and foreign objects and also help to lubricate the surface of the eye. When we blink, the eyelids carry secretions from the various glands across the eye.

The eyelid has several layers:

  • A fibrous layer to provide stability

  • A layer of muscle that controls the opening and closing of the eyelid. This layer can act incredibly quickly if the surface of the eye is vulnerable to attack, shutting the eyelid and protecting the surface of the eye using a reflex mechanism.

  • A layer of skin that contains glands and the eyelashes, which act as filters to stop large foreign objects entering the eyes.

  • The conjunctiva, which is a mucous membrane that connects the eyeball to the eyelid and the eyeball to the orbit.

TEAR GLANDS

Round the eyelids. Tears are around 99% water and keep the cornea moist, as well as protect the delicate cells on the cornea. Each gland can have as many as 12 tear ducts. On blinking tears drain away via the puncta lachrymal, a small opening in the inner corner of the eyelid.


You can see some of the patients, who have undergone for procedure Custom Artificial Eyes, Silicone Eye Prosthesis, Ear Prosthesis, Facial Prosthesis, Magnetic Eye Prosthesis, Digital Eye, Treatment for  mcirophthalmos & anophthalmos, with the Best ocularist in India, for the best Artificial eye and Facial Prosthesis, by Deepa D Raizada & Kuldeep Raizada, who are the world's Best Artificial eye maker and Facial Prosthesis Fabricator,  at international Prosthetic Eye Center, India

+919849193447

know your

Expert 

Team is highly qualified and very passionated to care for you at every step of providing care. 

Kuldeep Raizada, Ph D BCO, BADO, FAAO

Kuldeep Raizada is a Licensed Ocularist in Hyderabad, a Board Certified Ocularist (BCO)  from National examination Board of ocularist’s, USA and a Board Approved Diplomate Ocularist (BADO) from American Society of ocularist’s, specializing in ocular prosthetics since 2001, Kuldeep places his emphasis on the satisfaction and well-being of every patient. His clinical  skill and expertise are equally matched by his personalized care for patients and attention to detail.

Kuldeep Raizada completed his basic optometry education at Gandhi Eye Hospital, Aligarh, and has his training at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad. where he was also Founder and Head of the Department of Ocular Prosthesis services till 2009. He completed a second fellowship, in Anaplastolgy, at MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston. He has also been trained by the top most ocularist and anaplastologist in United States of America.

His clinical interests include ocular and facial prosthesis, particularly in pediatric patients. His research interests lie in newer advancement in development of new types of prosthesis, newer solution for ptosis corrective glasses. 

Kuldeep Raizada, is Founder & Director of the International Prosthetic Eye Center since 2010, where he is practicing since 2010.

Kuldeep Raizada has been recognized by the American Society of Ocularist, USA and American Anaplastology Association,USA and by several other professional organizations, for his excellence in research and clinical practice.

Kuldeep Raizada, have completed all requirements by American Society of Ocularist, which is hard work of 14000 working hours as well extensive study for prosthetics, Hence awarded the Diplomate Ocularist from American Society of Ocularist, USA, 2012, Chicago, USA, which is the First ever received all over Asia Pacific & throughout Middle East so ever. 

 At present he is reviewer of several journals like Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, International Journal of Anaplastology, Oculoplasty & Reconstructive  Surgery (OPRS) and Many others. He has published and presented world widely.

Fact About Kuldeep

  • CEO & Chairman of Akriti

  • Founder & Director International Prosthetic Eye Center, India

  • Founder of Healthcare India Magazine

  • Receipt of Abdul Kalam Award.

  • First ever Indian to received  Board Certifications, from National Board of examination of ocularist, USA, He was the first One all over Asia Pacific & throughout Middle East.

  • Developed First Digital Dynamic Facial Eye Prosthesis

  • Developed physiological Near Stereo test 

  • Developed physiological Distance Stereo test 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Hindi for 4 Meters

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Telegu for 4 Meters 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Assamese  for 4 Meters 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Arabic for 4 Meters 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Bangla for 4 Meters 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Tamil for 4 Meters 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Oriya  for 4 Meters 

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Kannada for 4 Meters

  • Developed ETDRS Log Mar Vision Charts in Malayalam for 4 Meters 


Deepa D Raizada, MS, BCA, BCO, BCCA 

Deepa completed her diploma and clinical fellowship in optometry at L V Prasad Eye Institute, India, in 2003, pursued her graduation from Madhurai Kamraj University, 2006.

She had completed her Master of Science (M Sc)  in “Maxillofacial and Craniofacial Technology” (2010-2012), King’s Collage London, UK where she was trained to work exclusively  in the field of Maxillofacial Prosthetics.

Deepa is also an associate Member of The Institute of Maxillofacial Prosthetist & Technologist, UK  (AIMPT) since 2014. & Active Member of International Anaplastology Association, (IAA) USA  since 2009.

Deepa Have make a remarkable success in becoming "Asia's First Board Certified Clinical Anaplastologist ( BCCA") and Bring glory for India as to Make India Fifth Nation to have a Board Certified  Clinical Anaplastologist.

She Did complete her Board Certification for Ocularist (BCO), By National Examination Board of ocularist, USA in March 2018 

She persued her basic training in Ocularistry from L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad and advanced training in Ocular Prosthetics (May – July, 2005) at Moorefield’s Eye Hospital, London, UK under Mr Nigel Saap. 

She worked as an Ocularist at Ocular Prosthesis Department, L V Prasad Eye Institute from 2003 – 2010. She worked with different type of techniques, developed new techniques in the fabrication and fitting of ocular & facial Prostheses. Her  work was well recognized and appreciated.

Her clinical interest include make her career in the art and science of facial prosthetics and ocular prosthetics, particularly in pediatric patients. Her research interests lie in developing new techniques in the field of facial prosthetics, and undertake research on materials used in this field.

Deepa Raizada has been recognized by the Oculoplasty Society of India, Indian Optometric Association and by several other professional organizations in India as well as Internationally, for her excellence in research and clinical practice.

Email ID: deepadraizada@gmail.com, deepaocularist@gmail.com

Fact about Deepa Raizada:

  1. She is the  First Indian Lady to be American Board Certified Ocularist  (BCO) as well as Board Certified Clinical Anaplastogist (CCA).

  2. Her credentials are unmatched with any one from Asia, Middle East, Africa &  Europe. First Ever Indian Lady to be American Board Certified Ocularist  (BCO) 2018 

  3. First Ever Indian Lady to received Her Board Certification in Clinical Anaplastology (CCA) 3rd Individual in the World to have CCA and BCO, (Other 2 in USA) 

  4. She bring the glory  to India for bringing the First Ever CCA &  made a land mark for India to 5th country in the world.